In addition to the Kyoto Protocol (and its amendment) and the Paris Agreement, the parties to the convention agreed to other commitments at the conferences of the parties to the UNFCCC. These include the Bali Action Plan (2007), [28] the Copenhagen Agreement (2009), [29] on the Cancun Agreements (2010), [30] and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2012). [31] An agreement on peak emissions with an overall target of 2oC and recognition of the need to consider strengthening this long-term global target in terms of an average global temperature increase of 1.5oC. The adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 set a precedent in the fight against climate change by setting the goal of “stabilizing GHG concentrations at a level of dangerous anthropogenic disturbances with the climate system” (United Nations, 1992). Subsequently, with the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1998, an international agreement on the UNFCCC, the international community recognized the responsibility of developing countries for “currently high emissions of TTH into the atmosphere due to more than 150 years of industrial activity” and set internationally binding emission reduction targets (United Nations , 1998). Recently, the adoption of the Paris Agreement has put climate change back on the global agenda. This agreement, based on the UNFCCC framework, brings together for the first time all nations in a common cause, in order to make ambitious efforts to “respond globally to the threat of climate change by keeping the increase in global temperature over this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels” (United Nations , 2015a, b). Starting in 2017, 170 parties have ratified the Paris Agreement, pledging to do their best under the “NDC,” reduce greenhouse gas emissions and establish an adequate financial flow, a new technological framework and a capacity-building framework to address climate change (UN United Nations 2015a,b). With the Paris Agreement, international climate policy has taken a new approach by establishing a framework of voluntary commitments allowing countries to define their own level of climate change control, which will be compared and verified internationally (Falkner, 2016).

As a result, the climate change debate has shifted from a universalist “bottom down” approach to an individual action-oriented approach, subject to some global coordination (Molina, 2016), commonly referred to as “bottom-up” or “construction approach” (Falkner et al., 2010). Following the signing of the UNFCCC Treaty, the parties to the UNFCCC met at conferences (“Conferences of the Parties” – COPs) to discuss how to achieve the treaty`s objectives. At the first Conference of the Parties (COP-1), the parties decided that the objective of the Schedule I parties to stabilize their emissions at their 1990 level by the year 2000 was “not appropriate”[13] and further discussions took place at subsequent conferences on the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol was concluded and legally binding commitments were made under international law to enable developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions over the 2008-2012 period. [4] At the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference, an agreement was presented to limit global warming to less than 2oC above pre-industrial levels. [14] Tracking Reference: United_Nations_Framework_Convention_Climate Change_CS:Legal_Framework_1992_EN The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty concluded at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. The UNFCCC`s goal is to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interventions in the climate system.” In 2015, the Paris Agreement was adopted by the UNFCCC to regulate emissions reductions from 2020, and countries publicly outlined what they would do after 2020 under the agreement, known as their national contributions (CNN).