There is no international environmental tribunal. Environmental disputes are being negotiated before a large number of adjudication associations – global, regional and national, judicial and arbitral. Many multilateral environmental regimes have “non-compliance procedures,” which are generally not judicial. Source: Cesare Pr Romano, `The Shadow Zones of International Judicialization` in Oxford Handbook of International Auction (OUP, 2014) 105-6 Some important contracts are listed below, but the full text of all IEL contracts is available on ECOLEX, a free online gateway to environmental contracts. World Resources Institute – Resources for environmental legislation by research topic, EarthTrends data tables and other publications of interest by research area. Entry into force is the date on which a contract enters into force for members. The agreement determines the effective date, usually after a predetermined period and when countries have ratified. It took 16 years for the World Heritage Convention, first ratified in the 1970s, and the CITIES Convention for 16 years to be ratified by more than 100 countries. However, the Kyoto Protocol was first ratified in 1998 and took only five years to reach the same point, and the Paris Agreement (2016) received 121 ratifications in the first year.

The concept of the environment is broad. Some agreements include a number of environmental protection measures, while others are very specific. The draft database of international environmental agreements divides the agreements into the following environmental categories: customary law and general environmental principles such as the “precautionary principle” and sustainable development are evolving, but it is questionable whether they have become normative rules. The rapidity of awareness of global environmental issues has entered the international political agenda has resulted in customary law tending to rank second in contract law in the development of legal standards, and treaties have been the main method used by the international community to address the need to regulate activities that threaten the environment. . There are hundreds of bilateral and multilateral environmental agreements that create the rights and duties of states. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Commission on Sustainable Development have negotiated many of these treaties. International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) are signed treaties that govern or control the impact of man on the environment in order to protect it. International environmental legislation is also often invoked in disputes before national courts.

ECOLEX has a selection of such cases in its legal database, but to search exhaustively, you use jurisprudential databases for different national jurisdictions.